Now a day, embedded systems (ES) are a foundation of the electronic industry and microchip technology. An embedded system design is something that demands an explicit tenacity. As the name suggests, the software is embedded into it as a system for a certain application.
Embedded systems are a blend of “hardware and software” in the field of electronics, i.e. an electronic device with computer software embedded in computer hardware. Generally, a hardware platform is a microcontroller or processor that is tipped into the software. The hardware has software of its own. They are either machine code such as hex code or programming code such as C and C++.
Most people misunderstand the ES with the General Purpose System (GPS). There are many tasks a GPS does. Take a laptop, for example. We can do many things at a time here (see video, write mail, etc.) But a single basic role is intended for an embedded device.
Take Pace Maker as an example. This system keeps tracking the heart rate, so it takes counter-acting action when the heat pump goes slow and lets the heartbeat return to normal condition.
Characteristics and Individualities of Embedded Systems
Some of the characteristics of ES are down below.
- Single Function: All the ES possess a single function and a strict single function to operate its tasks.
- High Performance: The ES executes an action without any interruption if input entered at any impulsive time.
- Multi-Rate: Take Camera as an example. It can have various colors, i.e., black, white, and motion. These colors are only supported by a certain camera for performing its action. Thus, embedded systems entail multi-rate operation managing.
Examples of Embedded Systems
Microwave oven, washing machine, central heating systems, GPS systems, and printers are some of the widely used technologies constructed with ES.
Technologies Need to Learn for Embedded Systems
The field of embedded systems is shifting day by day and there is a lot to explore. As there are debuggers, software platforms, embedded Linux, Raspberry Pi, ARM controllers, and Ubuntu Snappy for developing embedded systems. Still, some basics need to learn and understand before developing embedded systems.
Hardware for Embedded Systems
Think about various kinds of 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit microcontrollers. For embedded systems, the concepts of pacing, clocking, etc. must be known. Various communication protocols of SPI, I2C, UART, etc. are also even worthy to initialize the designing of embedded systems. You should be able to differentiate between them clearly and you should be able to determine which one for a specific circumstance to use. Learn about the transition of Analog to Digital (ADC), their forms, e.g. SAR, delta-sigma, and so on strongly important.
Software for Embedded Systems
Since we’re not talking about any particular method, yet learning the programming language C will be very helpful. Whenever a programmer becomes capable of writing code in C and has the know-how to use various IDEs then they can move towards the.
Different businesses use various IDEs for their programs. A few of them are below:
- Freescale utilizes Code Warrior
- Atmel uses Atmel Studio
- Microchip has MPLAB
Bear in mind that most of them focus on eclipses, so if a programmer knows how to use one, it won’t take a long time to learn the use the other IDEs.
A programmer should learn how to read the datasheet of the specific system for further use. If a programmer learns how to do code correctly once, it will be very easy to move to any new device/microcontroller. Eventually, a programmer must be able to understand how to locate the correct microcontroller register and how to use it.
Designing of Embedded Systems
An individual and maybe a programmer should be familiar with the style of Printed Circuit Board templates. What’s important here is that the programmer should be capable to make an artless circuit out of it and then design a PCB.
Programmer must have knowledge about various strategies for software design, e.g. Machines of State. Subsequently, know, don’t just read; work! Scratch a surface of Arduino and initiate playing with it.
ES are generally categorized into various categories. ES have three categories based upon hardware and software devices.
- Small Scale ES
- Medium Scale ES
- Sophisticated ES
In addition, based upon the integrated system’s performance and functional specifications, embedded systems also have more four categories, such as:
- Real-Time ES
- Stand Alone ES
- Mobile ES
- Network ES
ES have been utilizing in different fields such as digital electronics, telecommunications, computer networks. Not only this, smart cards, satellite systems, military defense system equipment, and research system equipment are also the miracles of embedded systems.
In real-time, IoT energy meter reading is a revolutionary application of embedded systems.